Senin, 16 April 2012



Auxiliaries jenis ini mengandung makna khhusus yang digunakan melalui ungkapan tertentu, sperti, ability, permission, possibility, dll. Berbeda dengan jenis di atas, modal tidak pernah bisa berdiri sendiri dan berfungsi menjadi ordinary verb.
A.   Ability : can, could,be able to
a.   He can/is able to climb that tree
b.   She can/is able to speak arabic
c.   I can see you tonight
·         Can/ could dalam hal hal tertentu berbeda maksudnya dari be able to jadi tidak selalu dapat dipertukarkan;
·         Could adalah past abliity dari can.

B.   Permission: may, might, can, could
a.   You can use my pencil.
b.   May I go home now?
c.   The teacher said that we might collect the homework tomorrow.
d.   He told us that we couldn’t meet him on Sunday.

C.   Advisability: should, ought to, had better
We should/ought to /had better study harder.
Should have dan ought to have digunakan untuk past time
-          He should have / ought to have washed the car this morning. (He did not wash the car this morning )
Had better tidak memiliki past form.

D.   Possibility: May, Can
1.   Present/future
It can/may/might rain tomorrow.
2.   Past
a.   I can’t find my purse. I could have might have left it at the office.
b.   He was not at home when I called him. He could have/ might have been at the library.
-  In this lesson we will work with this form: subject + modal + verb. 
- Different things can happen during the winter. There are different possibilities. We
can use the following modal auxiliaries to talk about these possibilities.
be going to
Practice using these modal auxiliaries with the following possibilities. Think of a verb to go
with a modal auxiliary.
get sick
catch a cold
dangerous roads 
difficult to see
icy sidewalks
  Icy roads
cold hands 
parking space 
covered with snow
Freezing rain
Icy windshield
Be late

- examples: It can get very cold in the winter. 
                             The sidewalks might be slippery, so be careful. 
- note: Do not use “to” after a modal auxiliary.

E.   Necessity: must, have to, have got to
a.   I have a class at eleven. I have got to / have to/ must go now.
b.   Had to dipakai untuk mengungkapan past necessity
c.   I had to leave the office early yesterday

F.   Lack of necessity and prohibition : don’t have to, musn’t
a.   Lack of necessity
A wife doesn’t have to earn money.
It’s a sunny day. I dont have to bring my umbrella
You’ve got a lot of time.  You don’t have to hurry.     
b.   Prohibition
Moslems musn’t eat pork.
Moslems musn’t drink liquor.
Moslems musn’t gossip

G.  Inference: must, must have
A.   Present
a.   You have been workng all day. You must be tired.
b.   Those peope must be waiting for the bus.
B.   Past
a.   I cant find my spetacles anywhere. I must have lost it.
b.   Somebody knocked at the door but i didn’t hear him. I must have been asleep

H.  Preference: would rather
A.   Present
a.   The children would rather walk to school thatn take a bus.
B.   Past
a.   The children would rather have walk to scholl than take a bus this morning.

Have to
Express obligation from speakers viewpoint
Express external obligation
He must stay at night.
I press him to do so.
He has to stay the night.
He can’t get back tonight.
You must call me ‘sir’.
I like it that way.
You have to call me “sir”.
This is the regulation address.
They must take it away.
I won’t have it any longer.
They have to take it away.
They’ve been told to do so.

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